Age difference marriage

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Metrics details. Depression represents one of the most common psychiatric disorders among older adults. Married couples are affected frequently, and psychiatric problems usually affect marital satisfaction.

Age difference marriage

Age difference marriage the frequency of such relationships, it appears that very few studies have examined the issues that arise in couples of this type of marriage. Therefore, we investigate whether age differences between couples affect extent of depressive symptoms among older adults. Our analysis included 2, couples i. A generalized linear mixed model was used for the data analysis. When the age difference between husbands and wives was 3 years or less, the estimated severity of depressive symptoms was 0.

When the age gap was 3 years or more, the estimated severity of depressive symptoms was 0. For every 1—2 years extra in age difference between wives and husbands, the estimated severity of depressive symptoms increased by 0. Age differences between husbands and wives impact their relationship, including any particular marital issues encountered. Peer Review reports. As an important indicator of mental Age difference marriage, depression is associated closely with lower life satisfaction [ 2 ], accompanied often by other mental disorders, physical pains and ailments [ 3 ], and burdensome economically [ 4 ].

Married couples are affected frequently, and psychiatric problems usually affect marital satisfaction [ 5 ]. Numerous empirical studies have provided evidence for the protective effects of marriage on health: married individuals are more likely to be healthier than are widowed, divorced, separated, or never-married individuals [ 67 ]. Furthermore, married individuals live longer than unmarried individuals [ 8 ].

In addition, the impact of the age gap between couples-related studies have been conducted [ 9 ]. In addition, in Iran, one study [ 10 ] about relationship did not found between age difference of couples and marital satisfaction and the maximum age difference between couples was 13 which seem to be culturally Age difference marriage in Iran.

Differences from this norm, especially when extreme, were associated with higher mortality rates [ 11 ]. The researchers speculated that this might be driven by the particular personal characteristics of those who tend to form these unusual partnerships. When investigating age-heterogamous relationships, researchers have paid particular attention to a of predictors. Atkinson and Glass [ 12 ] attributed changes in this context to an increase in gender equality in Korea. As women become more equal in society, they are less likely to conform to traditional gender roles, therefore foregoing the Age difference marriage norm in which the male is the older partner.

The importance of factors such as education have also been noted [ 1314 ]. Education appears to play a key role in determining the likelihood that a woman will participate in an age-heterogamous marriage. Social scientists have theorized that an increase in education may be associated with an increased tendency of women to enter heterogeneous relationships [ 14 ].

This may be because highly educated women tend to marry later, thus lessening their pool of potential mates and increasing their likelihood of marrying someone younger, as well as to the possibility that they hold more liberal views on marriage. Several studies have found that poor relationship quality has a greater impact upon wives than husbands [ 15 ]. However, the marital satisfaction levels and depression status of wives and husbands are usually correlated [ 16 ].

Therefore, it is important to test for cross-spouse effects of marital satisfaction on depression.

Age difference marriage

Although several studies have explored the relationship between marital satisfaction and depression [ 17 ], very few that had adjusted for age differences involved older couples, and little is known about partner effects among older populations. Accordingly, factors associated with depression that affect marital satisfaction among older couples remain understudied.

Therefore, we purposed to investigate the relationship between age differences and depressive symptoms in couples in which both partners were at least 45 years of age. Data were obtained from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging KLoSAa nationwide survey of community-dwelling people at least 45 years of age inanalyzed using multistage stratified cluster sampling. Those collected between the first and fourth Age difference marriage of data collection were used.

The KLoSA is conducted by the Korea Labor Institute, which aims to devise and implement effective social and economic policies addressing emerging trends in population aging. Additional waves of data collection are undertaken every even-ed year. The original KLoSA study population comprised South Korean adults, at least 45 years Age difference marriage age, living in 15 large administrative areas. In the first baseline survey, conducted in10, individuals among 6, households 1.

A follow-up survey in comprised 8, subjects, who represented The third survey in used 7, subjects, who represented Finally, the fourth survey in involved 7, subjects, who represented We restricted our population to married couples experiencing no change in marital status during the 8 Age difference marriage and of these participants, we excluded 4, subjects that one of them couples did not respond to survey in Our final analysis included 2, couples i. Economic activity status was divided into two : employed and unemployed.

The response was ranked from lowest to highest and grouped into three groups High, Middle, and Low using the SAS Rank function and the depression status of the partner spouse effect were included as covariates in the analyses. The item Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale CES-Dfirst used in the late s [ 18 ], is renowned for its reliability and validity in the context of the general population and primary care patients [ 19 ].

CESD score, the item screening tool we used for depressive symptoms consist of 10 points for the item version. The CES-D has proven to be a useful indicator of depression in older adults. Depressive symptoms were assessed for 7 days prior to the interview. In this study, we treated depressive symptoms as a continuous measure. Analysis of variance ANOVA and a generalized linear mixed model were used to investigate the impact of age differences between husbands and wives on depressive symptoms.

Age difference marriage

All analyses were conducted Age difference marriage the SAS statistical software package ver 9. Mixed model was required in order to handle the unbalanced data with correlated outcomes and missing data. In all mixed models presented, only the intercept was allowed to Age difference marriage between subjects, and the regression slopes were assumed to be fixed effects; random intercept models were applied to our data. A repeated-measurement model using Proc mixed procedure was performed for this analysis.

Depressive symptoms as a continuous variable was the outcome in all mixed models. Covariates of interest from all subjects were added to the model to determine their effects on the increased depressive symptoms. To determine whether the increased depressive symptoms changed over time, we included time year in the model as a categorical covariate; the regression coefficient was used to estimate both the change in increased depressive symptoms and independent variables, annually.

Tables 1 and 2 list the general characteristics of the husbands and wives, respectively both at baseline []; all characteristics were included as covariates. Data from 2, couples at baseline were included. The weighted extent of depressive symptoms for couples with age differences of 3 years or less was 0.

Age difference marriage

The weighted extent of depressive symptoms for same-aged couples was 0. The weighted extent of depressive symptoms for couples with age differences of 7 years or more was 0. The weighted extent of depressive symptoms for couples with age differences of 3 years or more was 1. The weighted extent of depressive symptoms for couples with age differences of 7 years or less, was 0. For couples with age differences of 3 years or less, the estimated severity of depressive symptoms was 0.

For couples with age differences of 3 years or more, Age difference marriage estimated severity of depressive symptoms was 0.

Age difference marriage

For couples with age differences between 1 and 2 years, the estimated severity of depressive symptoms was 0. In this study, our primary purpose was to investigate the impact of age differences between couples on depressive symptoms among older adults, using longitudinal models derived from a nationally-representative sample of the general population of South Korea. The demonstrated that the age difference between husbands and wives is associated with an increased depressive symptoms in those couples in which the wife is the older partner.

Furthermore, the magnitude of depression was higher in the wives compared with the husbands. These associations were independent of variables pertaining to sociodemographics e. In most societies an age difference between the members of a couple is socially normative; typically, the male is older than the female [ 21 ]. However, established family dynamics have undergone rapid changes characterized, for example, by a weakening of traditional patriarchy [ 22 ].

The extent Age difference marriage which couples in whom the husband is Age difference marriage older than his wife are deemed acceptable varies cross-culturally, but relatively large age differences are frequent in patriarchal societies [ 21 ]. The age difference between married couples has remained relatively stable for several decades in many countries, as noted by Klein [ 27 ]. Danish husbands on average are 3 years older than their wives [ 28 ].

While the mean age at marriage has increased by approximately 6 years during the twentieth century, especially since the end of the s, the age difference between spouses increased only gradually in the first 50 years, up to the s, but then decreased in the second half of the century [ 28 ]. To investigate age differences between couples, three separate theoretical concepts have been posited in recent decades.

Age difference marriage

The most common concept is homogamyor assortative matingwhich ps that individuals predisposed through cultural conditioning seek out and marry others like themselves. One assumption here is that a greater age difference is associated with greater marital instability. A further prominent concept is that of the marriage squeezein which the supply and demand of partners forces individuals to broaden or narrow their age range of acceptable partners.

A third, and less common, concept is the double standard of agingwhich assumes that males are generally less penalized for aging compared with females. This assumption is supported by the greater frequency of partnerships between older males and younger females, and the much greater variability in the ages of males at the time of marriage compared with females [ 29 ].

The present suggest that the wife as the older partner is detrimental for not only her husband, but also Age difference marriage herself. Moreover, controlling for additional covariates e. Nevertheless, one reason cited for gender by age differences in depressive symptoms is social support. A large body of research indicates that women generally have more social contacts than men, but are less likely to be dependent on their social supports [ 28 ].

There were a of strengths and limitations to this study. One strength is that the participants are likely to be representative of the overall population. Furthermore, a large sample size was used, such that the can be generalized to the general population of older adults Age difference marriage South Korea. However, our also suggest that the potential issue of an insufficient length of partnership, to allow for inferences regarding the relationship between depressive symptoms and age gap, was not critical.

Finally, although our population was restricted to cases in which there had been no change in Age difference marriage status for 7 years, the depressive effects of family bereavement e. The impact of age difference on the general relationship between husbands and wives and the specific issues that arise for couples were investigated.

Several important issues were highlighted by our. Sadock BJS.

Age difference marriage

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