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Please log in to save materials. Log in. Karen Horney stands alone as the only women recognized as worthy of her own chapter in many personality textbooks, and the ificance of her work certainly merits that honor.
She did not, however, focus her entire career on the psychology of women. Horney came to believe that culture was more important than gender in determining differences between men and women. Personally, Horney was a complex woman. Jack Rubins, who knew Horney during the last few years of her life, interviewed many people who knew her and came away with conflicting views:. She was described variously as both frail and powerful, both open and reticent, both warm and reserved, both close and detached, both a leader and needing to be led, both timid and awesome, both simple Boise music horney single profound.
From these characterizations, the impression emerges that she was not only a complex personality but changeable and constantly changing. She was able to encompass and unify, though with struggle, many diverse attitudes and traits… pg. Erich Fromm, who was a lay-analyst with a Ph. Her father was Norwegian by birth, but had become a German national. A successful sailor, he had become the captain of his own ship, and his family accompanied him on a few of his voyages, including trips around Cape Horn, along the west coast of South America, and as far north as San Diego in the United States.
Those trips established a life-long interest in travel, foreign customs, and diversity in the young Karen Horney. From early childhood, Horney enjoyed reading, studying, and going to school. Horney followed the traditional education of the day, covering Boise music horney single, math, French, Latin, English, and the humanities.
She also took special classes in speech, and for a time was very interested in dancing, drama, and the theatre. Despite the challenging curriculum, she was an excellent student, and often placed first in her class. After being impressed by a friendly country doctor when she was 12, she decided to pursue a career in medicine.
When she began college at the University of Freiburg-in-Breisgau, at the age of 20, her mother came along to get her settled in and care for her. Horney soon became good friends with Ida Grote, who moved in with Horney and her mother to help offset the costs of attending college. Over the next few years, she began her medical studies at the University of Gottingen, and then transferred to the University of Berlin, where Boise music horney single received her medical degree in In she had married Oskar Horney, who was described as a tall, slim, handsome man, a brilliant thinker, gifted organizer, and possessing great physical and emotional strength.
He also attended the University of Berlin, eventually receiving doctorate degrees in Law, Economics, and Political Science! They soon had three daughters, Brigitte, Marianne, and Renate between and Both Karen and Oskar Horney were successful in their careers during the beginning of their marriage.
He worked as a lawyer for a munitions company, and did very well financially. She was actively developing her medical career, but had to work that much harder due to continued discrimination against women at the time. Nonetheless, the Horneys grew apart during these years.
A year later, he was stricken with severe encephalomeningitis, and spent 8 months in critical condition. These events radically altered his personality, as he became a broken and depressed person. In they separated, and never got back together. It was not, however, until that Karen Horney legally divorced her husband Kelman, ; Rubins, She entered into psychoanalysis with Karl Abraham, and later she was also analyzed by Hanns Sachs for a brief time.
Abraham appointed her as an instructor in the Berlin Psychoanalytic Poliklinik inand brought her to the attention of Sigmund Freud with high praise. She came to know many of the candidates for psychoanalytic training, and also became friends with many of them, including Melanie Klein, Wilhelm Reich, and Erich Fromm. She also had many friends outside psychoanalytic circles, including the existential theologian Paul Tillich and the neurologist Kurt Goldstein who coined the term self-actualization.
The psychoanalytic scene in Berlin was active and dynamic, and Horney was very much in the middle of it all, never shy about expressing Boise music horney single own ideas and different opinions. One such issue was that of training lay-analysts psychologists, as opposed to psychiatrists.
She favored allowing the training for the purposes of research, but clearly favored medical training for those who would actually practice therapeutic psychoanalysis. This eventually led to conflict between Horney and her close friend Erich Fromm.
Despite the many favorable circumstances in Berlin at the time, in the early s Hitler was elected, and the Nazi regime began. So, when Franz Alexander, who had been asked to come to Chicago to establish a new psychoanalytic training institute, asked her to be the Associate Director of the newly established Chicago Institute of Psychoanalysis, she accepted Kelman, ; Rubins, This dramatic turn in the events of her life did not, however, occur without a bit of chance.
Thus, Horney was the second choice for the position that brought Boise music horney single to America for the rest of her life Kelman, ; Rubins, Once in Chicago, however, her theoretical differences with Alexander became a clear source of disagreement. Boise music horney single private practice grew steadily, and Alvin Johnson, the president of the New School as it is commonly known introduced her to W. Her first book was entitled The Neurotic Personality of Our Timewhich was followed by perhaps her two most radical books, New Ways in Psychoanalysis and Self-Analysis Horney had pursued new techniques in psychoanalysis and self-analysis, in part, because of her dissatisfaction with her own as both a patient and a psychoanalyst.
After her death, Harold Kelman who was both a friend and colleague brought together a of her early papers in Feminine Psychology Kelman,and, as a special tribute, Douglas Ingram published the transcripts of her final lectures, presented during a class she taught in the fall of Ingram, She bought and sold vacation homes often, including one where Oskar Horney stayed for a time, and she traveled frequently. She enjoyed playing cards, and wanted to win so much that she would sometimes cheat!
When caught, she would freely admit it, laugh, and say that her opponents should have stopped her sooner. Sometimes Boise music horney single would even gather her friends together and loudly sing German songs, in memory of their homeland Kelman, ; Rubins, At work, however, there was constant tension regarding theoretical and political issues in the psychoanalytic societies. Inthe New York Psychoanalytic Institute voted to disqualify Horney as a training analyst, due to her seemingly radical ideas on psychoanalytic techniques.
Half the society did not vote, however, and they soon left to form a new institute. Immediately following the vote, Horney walked out, and a group of analysts led by Clara Thompson followed her. The very same month, twenty analysts ed Horney in forming the Association for the Advancement of Psychoanalysis, and Horney was asked to become the Dean of their soon to be established American Institute for Psychoanalysis. When Thompson suggested that Sullivan be granted honorary membership, and Horney recommended the same for Fromm, Fromm refused because he was not going to be recognized as a clinical psychoanalyst.
Among others, Fromm, Thompson, and Sullivan left the society. There were other political battles as well, and Horney was routinely torn between her professional beliefs, her need to control the direction of the society and institute, and her personal friendships with the individuals involved.
Through it all, although she held strong beliefs such as opposing therapeutic psychoanalysis by lay-analysts like Frommshe nonetheless encouraged challenging the original theories developed by Freud, as well as her own theories:. I recall being impressed by her response at my first meeting with her, when I indicated my own curiosity and bent for research. She had warmly hoped I would continue this way, since her views needed further work and clarification.
Indeed, during an interview Boise music horney singleshe stated that she knew her ideas would be changed, if not by herself by someone else. ByHorney seemed to be feeling lonely and isolated. Perhaps the political and theoretical battles had taken their toll, perhaps it was her strained relationships with her daughters they were never really closeor perhaps it was the beginning of the cancer that would eventually take her life.
Although Horney would not consult with her physician about the abdominal pains she was experiencing thus she did not know that she had cancershe did begin to develop strong spiritual interests. John the Divine Church, though she seemed more interested Boise music horney single the philosophical and ethical aspects of religion than the spiritual aspects.
A few years earlier she had met D. Suzuki, and she became particularly interested in Zen. She was especially impressed by a book he recommended entitled Zen in the Art of Archery Herrigel, ; based on an article he wrote in InSuzuki led Horney on a trip to Japan, where she visited a of Zen temples and had lengthy discussions with Zen monks. Although Boise music horney single seemed more interested in the practical aspects of being a student of Zen, she nonetheless endeavored to put Zen principles into a context she could understand such as equating enlightenment with self-realization; Rubins, Late inher cancer became so advanced that she finally sought medical care.
However, it was too late. On December 4,she died peacefully, surrounded by daughters. She did not, however, attempt to reject his influence, but rather, felt that she honored him by building upon his achievements.
Horney was also ificant in the development of psychodynamic theory and psychoanalysis in America.
She helped to establish psychoanalytic societies and training institutes in Chicago and New York. She was a friend and colleague to many influential psychoanalysts, including Harry Stack Sullivan and Erich Fromm. She encouraged cross-cultural research and practice through her own example, not only citing the work of anthropologists and sociologists, but also through her personal interest and support for the study of Zen Buddhism.
Although Horney herself abandoned the study of feminine psychology, suggesting instead that it represented the cultural effect of women being an oppressed minority group, her subsequent emphasis on the importance of relationships and interpersonal psychodynamic processes laid the foundation for later theories on the psychology of women such as the relational-cultural model. Boise music horney single, her influence is still being felt quite strongly today.
Horney did not establish a specific theory of personality. Rather, her career proceeded through a series of stages in which she addressed the issues that were of particular concern to her at the time. Accordingly, her theories can be grouped into three stages: Boise music horney single psychology, culture and disturbed human relationships, and finally, the mature theory in which she focused on the distinction between interpersonal and intrapsychic defenses Paris, Horney was neither the first, nor the only, ificant woman in the early days of psychodynamic theory and psychoanalysis.
In doing so, she offered a very different perspective on the psychology of women and personality development in girls and women. Her papers have been collected and published in Feminine Psychology by her friend and colleague Harold Kelmanand an excellent overview of their content can be found in the biography written by Rubins Horney agreed that girls develop penis envy, but not that it is the only dynamic force influencing development during the phallic stage. Girls envy the ability of boys to urinate standing up, the fact that boys can see their genitals, and Boise music horney single relative ease with which boys can satisfy their desire for masturbation.
More important for girls than penis envy, however, was the fear and anxiety young girls experience with regard to vaginal injury were they to actually have intercourse with their fathers which, Horney agreed, they may fantasize. Thus, they experience a unique dynamic force called female genital anxiety. Another element of the castration complex in women, according to Horney, was the consequence of castration fantasies that she called wounded womanhood incorporating the belief that the girl had been castrated.
Far more important than these basic processes, however, was the male bias inherent in society and culture.Boise music horney single
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