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Persons using assistive technology might not be able to fully access information in this file. For assistance, please send e-mail to: mmwrq cdc. Type Accommodation and the title of the report in the subject line of e-mail. Within the past several years, two U. Concern about the effects of marijuana on a person's ability to perform such tasks as driving, flying, or operating machinery has prompted various governmental and industrial groups to establish policies about marijuana use, which often include chemical screening of biologic fluids.
Until recently, testing of plasma has been the only means by which exposure to marijuana has been detected. Three years ago, however, the first urine-screening test became available to make such screening possible at moderate cost SYVA. The urine test is based on detection of nor-deltatetrahydrocannabinolcarboxylic acid 9-carboxy-THCa metabolite of deltaTHC, which is the primary pharmacologically active component of marijuana.
Urine from marijuana users contains quantities of 9-carboxy-THC in both free and conjugated form, as well as other cannabinoids THC and its metabolites detectable by the test. The manufacturer states that any positive test result should be confirmed by an alternative method. Only blood-sample measurements are likely to correlate with a person's degree of exposure 3 ; attempts to correlate urine concentration with impairment or time of dose are complicated by variations in individual metabolism, metabolite accumulation in the chronic user, and urine volume changes due to diet, exercise, and age.
Therefore, a positive result by the urine cannabinoid test indicates only the likelihood of prior use. Smoking a single marijuana cigarette produces THC metabolites that are detectable for several days with the cannabinoid assay 4. THC can accumulate in body fat, creating higher excretion concentrations and longer detectability. If an affect on performance is the main reason for screening, the urine cannabinoid test result alone cannot indicate performance impairment or assess the degree of risk associated with the person's continuing to perform tasks.
If a history of marijuana use is the major reason for screening, the urine test for cannabinoids should be able to detect prior use for up to 2 weeks in the casual user and possibly longer in the chronic user. A chain of custody for the sample must be maintained by the testing laboratory, as well as during the steps that bring the sample to the laboratory. All urine samples positive by the cannabinoid assay need to be confirmed by an alternate method that is as sensitive as the screening test, a condition not always met. Because of costs involved in more complex confirmatory procedures, confirmatory tests have not always been conducted to verify pd positive test.
Since the screening tests are immunologically based and measure both conjugated and free forms of THC metabolites, any confirmatory procedure should either measure both forms or should include a hydrolysis step to increase analytical sensitivity. Confirmatory techniques may be specific for a particular THC Marijuana blood test facts, while the screening kits react with virtually all THC metabolites, a further complication in confirming screening.
SYVA markets two different cannabinoid assay kits with a twofold to fourfold difference in the amount of THC metabolite required to produce a positive test Marijuana blood test facts. Regardless of which assay kit is used, test should be Marijuana blood test facts by qualified personnel and positive verified so that there is a very limited possibility of a false-positive result. Editorial Note: Marijuana is the most widely used illicit drug in the United States; an estimated 50 million people have Marijuana blood test facts it at least once 8.
A recent U. Although further study is needed on the long-term health effects of marijuana use, short-term effects include impaired motor coordination and perception, as well as slowed learning and decreased short-term memory 9. Urine cannabinoid assays permitting extension of testing to nonlaboratory settings, such as industrial sites, probation offices, and schools have been developed.
The relative ease with which the test can be performed encourages its use by nontechnical personnel. Those who interpret data from laboratory or nonlaboratory settings should be aware of possible pitfalls in such testing Whether test are used for counseling or determining compliance with orders to desist from marijuana use, the laboratory must perform the and schools have been developed.
Whether test are used for counseling or determining compliance with orders to desist from marijuana use, the laboratory must perform the test according to the manufacturer's recommendations, including confirmation of any positive test. A recent report indicates that passive inhalation of marijuana smoke by a nonuser is not likely to produce a positive urine test result 11but since some passive inhalation does occur, establishment of minimum sensitivity limits by a laboratory must be done cautiously.
Tolerance and disposition of THC in man. Pharm Exp Ther ; Marijuana analysis: of a recent interlaboratory survey. Clin Chem ; Hawks RL. Developments in cannabinoid analyses Marijuana blood test facts body fluids: implications of forensic applications. The cannabinoids: chemical, pharmacologic and therapeutic aspects. New York: Academic Press, in press. EMIT cannibinoid assay. Clinical study no. Palo Alto, Calif. Confirmation of a tetrahydrocannabinol metabolite in urine by gas chromatography. J Anal Tox ; In: Hawks R, ed.
Analysis of cannabinoids. Research monograph HPLC analysis of the major metabolite of deltatetrahydrocannabinol in urine. J Anal Tox in press.
National survey on drug abuse: main findings, Washington, D. Government Printing Office, HHS publication no. ADM Institute of Medicine. Marijuana and health. Urine testing for marijuana use. JAMA letter Passive inhalation of marijuana smoke and urinary excretion of cannabinoids. Clin Pharmacol Ther ; This conversion may have resulted in character translation or format errors in the HTML version. An Marijuana blood test facts paper copy of this issue can be obtained from the Superintendent of Documents, U.
Contact GPO for current prices. Department of Health and Human Services. Editorial Note Editorial Note: Marijuana is the most widely used illicit drug in the United States; an estimated 50 million people have tried it at least once 8.Marijuana blood test facts
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Urine Testing for Detection of Marijuana: An Advisory