Types of ketamine

Added: Rajeev Ludwig - Date: 29.01.2022 12:49 - Views: 19446 - Clicks: 8277

First things first: You may be asking yourself, "What is ketamine? Now this medication is gaining ground as a promising treatment for some cases of major depression, which is the leading cause of disability worldwide.

Types of ketamine

In the US, recent estimates show 16 million adults had an episode of major depression in the course of a year. Because of its rapid Types of ketamine, ketamine could have a role to play in helping to prevent suicide. If a person responds to ketamineit can rapidly reduce suicidality life-threatening thoughts and acts and relieve other serious symptoms of depression. Ketamine also can be effective for treating depression combined with anxiety.

Other treatments for suicidal thoughts and depression often take weeks or even months to take effect, and some people need to try several medications or approaches to gain relief. This is true for talk therapies, antidepressant medicines, transcranial magnetic stimulation TMSand electroconvulsive therapy ECTwhich is currently the most effective treatment for major depression that fails to respond to other therapies.

The two forms of ketamine interact differently with receptors in the brain. The delivery of Types of ketamine and the type given affect drug effectiveness and side effects. Further research comparing effectiveness and side effects is needed. Because it exerts an antidepressant effect through a new mechanism, ketamine may be able to help people successfully manage depression when other treatments have not worked.

One likely target for ketamine is NMDA receptors in the brain. By binding to these receptors, ketamine appears to increase the amount of a neurotransmitter called glutamate in the spaces between neurons. Glutamate then activates connections in another receptor, called the AMPA receptor.

Types of ketamine

Together, the initial blockade of NMDA receptors and activation of AMPA receptors lead to the release of other molecules that help neurons communicate with each other along new pathways. Known as synaptogenesis, this process likely affects mood, thought patterns, and cognition. Ketamine also may influence depression in other ways. For example, Types of ketamine might reduce als involved in inflammation, which has been linked to mood disorders, or facilitate communication within specific areas in the brain. Most likely, ketamine works in several ways at the same time, many of which are being studied.

All drugs have side effects.

Types of ketamine

When someone is suicidal or severely depressed, possible benefits may outweigh possible risks. Generally, any changes in perception or dissociation are most noticeable during the first infusion and end very quickly afterward. Esketamine nasal spray may cause the same side effects. However, the timing and intensity of those effects is different. Long-term or frequent use of ketamine may have additional side effects. More research on this is needed.

Types of ketamine

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